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Reza Mokhtari IELTS Society
Reza Mokhtari IELTS Society
 با کراوات به ديدار خدا رفتم و شد...
با کراوات به ديدار خدا رفتم و شد... با کراوات به ديدار خدا رفتم و شد بر خلاف جهت اهل ريا رفتم و شد ريش خود را ز ادب صاف نمودم با تيغ همچنان آينه با صدق و صفا رفتم و شد دهنم رايحه روزه نميداد كه من عطر بر خود زدم و غاليه سا رفتم و شد حمد را خواندم و آن مد"ولاالضالين"را ننمودم ز ته حلق ادا رفتم و شد يکدم از قاسم و جبار نگفتم سخني گفتم اي مايه هر مهر و وفا رفتم و شد همچو موسي نه عصا داشتم و نه نعلين سرخوش و بي خبر و بي سرو پا رفتم و شد "لن تراني"نشنيدم ز خداوند چو او "ارني" گفتم و او گفت "رثا" رفتم و شد مدعي گفت چرا رفتي و چون رفتي و کي؟ من دلباخته بي چون و چرا رفتم وشد تو تنت پيش خدا روز و شبان خم شد و راست من خدا گفتم و او گفت بيا رفتم و شد مسجد و دير و خرابات به دادم نرسيد فارغ از کشمکش اين دو سه تا رفتم و شد خانقاهم فلک آبي بي سقف و ستون پير من آنکه مرا داد ندا رفتم وشد گفتم اي دل به خدا هست خدا منجي تو تا بدينسان شدم از خلق رها رفتم و شد
|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در جمعه هفدهم تیر 1390  |
 Theory

The term theory is used with surprising frequency in everyday language. It is often used to mean a guess or supposition. A theory is based upon a hypothesis and backed by evidence. A theory presents a concept or idea that is testable. In science, a theory is not merely a guess. A theory is a fact-based framework for describing a phenomenon. In psychology, theories are used to provide a model for understanding human thoughts, emotions and behaviours. A psychological theory has two key components: (1) it must describe a behaviour and (2) make predictions about future behaviors. Originally the word theory is a technical term from Ancient Greek. It is derived from theoria, θεωρία, meaning "a looking at, viewing, beholding", and refers to contemplation or speculation, as opposed to action. Theory is especially often contrasted to "practice" (Greek praxis, πρᾶξις). A classical example uses the discipline of medicine to explain the distinction: Medical theory and theorizing involves trying to understand the causes and nature of health and sickness, while the practical side of medicine is trying to make people healthy. These two things are related but can be independent, because it is possible to research health and sickness without curing specific patients, and it is possible to cure a patient without knowing how the cure worked. While theories in the arts and philosophy may address ideas and not easily observable empirical phenomena, in modern science the term "theory", or "scientific theory" is generally understood to refer to a proposed explanation of empirical phenomena, made in a way consistent with the scientific method. A distinction is often made in science between theories and hypotheses, which are theories that are not considered to have been satisfactorily tested or proven.

Theories are analytical tools for understanding, explaining, and making predictions about a given subject matter. There are theories in many and varied fields of study, including the arts and sciences. Theory is constructed of a set of sentences which consist entirely of true statements about the subject matter under consideration. However, the truth of any one of these statements is always relative to the whole theory. Therefore the same statement may be true with respect to one theory, and not true with respect to another. This is, in ordinary language, where statements such as "He is a terrible person" cannot be judged to be true or false without reference to some interpretation of who "He" is and for that matter what a "terrible person" is under the theory. If there is a new theory which is better at explaining and predicting phenomena than an older theory, we are justified in believing that the newer theory describes reality more correctly. This is called an intertheoretic reduction because the terms of the old theory can be reduced to the terms of the new one. For instance, our historical understanding about "sound," "light" and "heat" have today been reduced to "wave compressions and rarefactions," "electromagnetic waves," and "molecular kinetic energy," respectively. These terms which are identified with each other are called intertheoretic identities. When an old theory and a new one are parallel in this way, we can conclude that we are describing the same reality, only more completely. In cases where a new theory uses new terms which do not reduce to terms of an older one, but rather replace them entirely because they are actually a misrepresentation it is called an intertheoretic elimination. For instance, the obsolete scientific theory that put forward an understanding of heat transfer in terms of the movement of caloric fluid was eliminated when a theory of heat as energy replaced it.

 

Theories are distinct from theorems: theorems are derived deductively from theories according to a formal system of rules, generally as a first step in testing or applying the theory in a concrete situation. Theories are abstract and conceptual, and to this end they are never considered right or wrong. Instead, they are supported or challenged by observations in the world. They are 'rigorously tentative', meaning that they are proposed as true but expected to satisfy careful examination to account for the possibility of faulty inference or incorrect observation. Sometimes theories are falsified, meaning that an explicit set of observations contradicts some fundamental assumption of the theory, but more often theories are revised to conform to new observations, by restricting the class of phenomena the theory applies to or changing the assertions made. Sometimes a theory is set aside by scholars because there is no way to examine its assertions analytically; these may continue on in the popular imagination until some means of examination is found which either refutes or lends credence to the theory. Theories whose subject matter consists not in empirical data, but rather in ideas are in the realm of philosophical theories as contrasted with scientific theories. At least some of the elementary theorems of a philosophical theory are statements whose truth cannot necessarily be scientifically tested through empirical observation. Fields of study are sometimes named "theory" because their basis is some initial set of assumptions describing the field's approach to a subject matter. These assumptions are the elementary theorems of the particular theory, and can be thought of as the axioms of that field. Some commonly known examples include set theory, game theory, and number theory; however literary theory, critical theory, and music theory are also of the same form. One form of philosophical theory is a metatheory or meta-theory. A metatheory is a theory whose subject matter is some other theory. In other words it is a theory about a theory. Statements made in the metatheory about the theory are called metatheorems. A scientific theory is a deductive theory, in that, its content is based on some formal system of logic and that some of its elementary theorems are taken as axioms. In a deductive theory, any sentence which is a logical consequence of one or more of the axioms is also a sentence of that theory.

Theories are intended to be an accurate, predictive description of the natural world. The term theoretical is sometimes informally used in place of hypothetical to describe a result that is predicted, but has not yet been adequately tested by observation or experiment. A hypothesis is the application of a theory or theories to new conditions which has yet to be tested while a theory is a prediction based on previous observations or experiments of the same or similar circumstances. It is not, however, uncommon for a theory to produce predictions that are later confirmed or proven incorrect by experiment. By inference, a prediction proved incorrect by experiment demonstrates the hypothesis is invalid. This either means the theory is incorrect, or the experimental conjecture was wrong and the theory did not predict the hypothesis. In the sciences, theories are created after observation and testing. They are designed to rationally and clearly explain a phenomenon. For example, Isaac Newton came up with a theory about gravity in the 17th century, and the theory proved to be both testable and correct. Scientific theories are not quite the same thing as facts, but they are often very similar; scientists usually test their theories extensively before airing them, looking for obvious problems which could cause the theory to be challenged.

 

 

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در چهارشنبه هجدهم اسفند 1389  |
 Teacher Poem

A Teacher for All Seasons

A teacher is like Spring,
Who nurtures new green sprouts,
Encourages and leads them,
Whenever they have doubts.

A teacher is like Summer,
Whose sunny temperament
Makes studying a pleasure,
Preventing discontent.

A teacher is like Fall,
With methods crisp and clear,
Lessons of bright colors
And a happy atmosphere.

A teacher is like Winter,
While it’s snowing hard outside,
Keeping students comfortable,
As a warm and helpful guide.

Teacher, you do all these things,
With a pleasant attitude;
You’re a teacher for all seasons,
And you have my gratitude!

 

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در سه شنبه پنجم بهمن 1389  |
 Song Dictation

The purpose of this activity is to sharpen students’ listening ability in the

pronunciation of shortened verb forms such as I’m, I’ve, It’s, I’ll, and the like, as well

as the distinction between long and short vowels (/i/ and /I:/) in words like coming,

receive, free, still, ribbon, three, see, and so on. The song used in the activity is "Tie a

yellow ribbon round the old oak tree."

     Students are first handed out the lyrics with the words missing. They are asked to

go through the lyrics and try to guess the words in the blanks. The teacher then

explains difficult words and lets students read the lyrics. This is followed by the

teacher asking simple questions to check the students’ overall comprehension of the

song. Students can listen to the song three times: the first time purely listening and

trying to work out what the missing words are; the second time filling in the gaps and

the third time checking to confirm whether the answers are correct or not.

     The teacher then discusses the answers with the students and practices

pronouncing the words with them through further listening and singing with the tape.

The next step is to help students understand more about the song by engaging them in

creative writing tasks which involve placing them into different roles related to the

characters in the song. For example, students may be asked to imagine themselves to

be the husband and wife in the song. Half of them will be the husband who will soon

be released from prison and come home to reunite with his wife. Each of them is to

write a letter to his wife to ask whether she will forgive him or not. The other half

will pretend to be the wife who will each write a reply to the husband telling him

what she feels.

     Another writing activity can be done in groups. Each group will be asked to write

a conversation between the husband and wife when they meet again. Students can

express freely their ideas in the construction of the dialogue in a low anxiety

environment. This will naturally lead to a role-play exercise during which students

can further stretch their imagination through exposure to other students’ work.

Students may be unable to replicate the whole session as the design for creative

writing tasks might be beyond their abilities. They can definitely work on the filling

in the gaps task. To minimize the pressure on the task, students may do it in groups.

First, they have to choose a song they like for the exercise. Then they decide which

language items they want for practice (for example, vocabulary, adjectives, pronouns

and so on) and delete appropriate words in the lyrics. At this time, teachers will need

to give feedback to students to ensure that what they have prepared suits the purpose

before they actually present their work to their classmates. Based on the students’

work, teachers may build up more exercises on creative writing or grammar tasks.

Working on their own materials, students find learning more interesting and motivating.

 

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در پنجشنبه دوم دی 1389  |
 APA Style

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. There are two major components to APA citation style: in-text citation and detailed reference list.

     When your work has been influenced by someone else's work, insert an in-text citation which consists of author surname(s) - in the order that they appear on the actual publication, followed by the year of publication of the source that you are citing. The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited. It is highly recommended to include page or paragraph numbers for direct quotes, and for paraphrasing where appropriate. If quoting or citing a source which is cited within another, secondary reference, it is necessary to mention the source with the secondary reference details: e.g. Smith (as cited in Jones, 2010).

     Begin your reference list on a new page and title it 'References,' and centre the title on the page. APA requires only a reference list, not a bibliography; therefore one should list only works actually cited in the text. A hanging indent is where the first line of each reference is fully left justified while subsequent lines are indented to the right. The width of the hanging indent should be 5-7 spaces or 1.25 cm. Hanging indents and double spacing are set by the word processors. Reference list format is: author's name, publication date, title of work, and publication data, with periods separating each item. When authors have the same last name, there is a need to alphabetize the initials of the first name, and include the initials when citing in the text. It should be kept in mind that nothing precedes something, e.g., Brown would precede Browning.  And there is a demand on providing organization names in full, unless they are obviously recognizable as abbreviations, e.g. APA for American Psychological Association. While referring to an internet web page, addition of full stops to URLs is strictly forbidden, e.g. http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/.

 

     Borrow ideas (words, findings, numbers, graphs, etc.) from a source whenever they will support, clarify, or enrich your meaning. When you borrow the words, give credit to the original author in your paper. Every time you quote directly or you paraphrase from a source, you must acknowledge the author.

 

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در دوشنبه یکم آذر 1389  |
 Top 10 Famous Quotes and Quotations

I want to know God's thoughts... the rest are details.

Albert Einstein

 

100% of the shots you don't take don't go in.

Wayne Gretzky

 

'Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?'
'That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,' said the Cat.
'I don't much care where --' said Alice.
'Then it doesn't matter which way you go,' said the Cat.
'--so long as I get somewhere,' Alice added as an explanation.

Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland


An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind.

M.K. Gandhi


Whatever the mind can conceive and believe, the mind can achieve.

Dr. Napoleon Hill


Neither a lofty degree of intelligence nor imagination nor both together go
to the making of genius. Love, love, love, that is the soul of genius.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart


You can have everything in life that you want if you just give enough other
people what they want.

Zig Ziglar


Keep away from people who try to belittle your ambitions. Small people always
do that, but the really great make you feel that you, too, can become great.

Mark Twain


Great works are performed, not by strength, but by perseverance.

Samuel Johnson


I made this letter longer than usual because I lack the time to make it short.

Blaise Pascal


Never worry about the size of your Christmas tree. In the eyes of children,
they are all 30 feet tall.

Larry Wilde, The Merry Book of Christmas


Peace on earth will come to stay, When we live Christmas every day.

Helen Steiner Rice

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در دوشنبه شانزدهم فروردین 1389  |
 من هنوز انسانم!!!

من هنوز انسانم!!!!!!

اگر به خانه ی من آمدی

برایم مداد بیاور

مداد سیاه

می خواهم روی چهره ام خط بکشم

تا به جرم زیبایی در قفس نیفتم،

یک ضربدر هم روی قلبم تا به هوس هم نیفتم!

یک مداد پاک کن بده

 برای محو لبها

نمی خواهم کسی به هوای سرخیشان،

سیاهم کند!

یک بیلچه،

تا تمام غرایز زنانه را از ریشه در آورم

شخم بزنم وجودم را

بدون اینها راحت تر به بهشت می روم گویا!

یک  تیغ بده؛

موهایم را از ته بتراشم

سرم هوایی بخورد

و بی واسطه روسری کمی بیاندیشم

نخ و سوزن  هم بده،  

برای زبانم می خواهم

بدوزمش به سق

اینگونه فریادم بی صداتر است!

قیچی یادت نرود

می خواهم هر روز اندیشه هایم را سانسور کنم!

پودر رختشویی هم لازم دارم

برای شستشوی مغزی

مغزم را که شستم،

پهن کنم روی بند

تا آرمانهایم را باد با خود ببرد

به آنجایی که عرب نی انداخت.

می دانی که؟

باید واقع بین بود!

صدا خفه کن

 هم اگر گیر آوردی بگیرمی خواهم وقتی

به جرم عشق و انتخاب،

برچسب ف/ا/ح/ش/ه می زنندم

بغضم را در گلو خفه کنم!

یک کپی از هویتم را هم می خواهم

برای وقتی که خواهران و برادران دینی به قصد ارشا د،

فحش و تحقیر تقدیمم می کنند!

تو را به خدا

اگر جایی دیدی "حقی" می فروختند

برایم بخر

تا در غذا بریزم

ترجیح  می دهم خودم قبل از دیگران حقم را  بخورم!

و سر آخر اگر پولی برایت ماند

برایم  یک پلاکارد بخر

به شکل گردنبند

بیاویزم به گردنم

و رویش با حروف درشت بنویسم:

"من یک انسانم ".

"من هنوز یک انسانم"

"من هر روز یک انسانم"

از وبلاگ: شخصي و عاشقانه

http://www.azadenevis.blogfa.com/

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در جمعه یازدهم دی 1388  |
 British Slangs

British slang, contrary to popular opinion, is not a lower-class trait. It stems from Shakespeare to Chaucer and encompasses nearly every generation of human speech. From Cockney rhyming slang to short-lived colloqialisms, England contains a mixture of euphenisms that often leave Americans scratching their heads. These words are not so hard to learn, however. Watch a bunch of really bad British movies, throw on your most pompous English accent, and use the following slang dictionary to sound like a wanky Brit, mate: 
 
absobloodylootely: absolutely
after: bars open after normal closing time
all over the gaff: unorganized
arse: butt
arse-over-tit: drunk
ballistic: wild
barmy: crazy
bloke: a male
bobby: policeman
cabbage: a slow person
cakehole: mouth (Shut your cakehole!)
Charlie: crack, cocaine
ciggy: cigarette
copper: policeman
Crikey!: My God!
Dicky: feeling unwell
doddle: something easy (It was a doddle to get the Charlie.)
Doris: a plain woman
dosh: money
five finger discount: shoplifting
Frenchy: a french kiss
gab: to talk a lot
geezer: an old man
get the nod: to get permission
gob: mouth
having it off: a term for intercourse
hold it down: keep the noise down, control yourself
hooter: nose
inside: imprisoned (Barry's inside again.)
kip: sleep (I need some kip, mate.)
knackered: tired
loaded: very rich
minger: an unattractive girl
munch: food (Time for munch, mate!)
nipper: a small child
skirt: a young woman
tom: a prostitute
up the duff: pregnant

This dictionary is by no means exhaustive, but it should give you an idea of the most common British slang terms and their proper use. So get off your duff, you wanker, and grab the full monty! Good luck!
 

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در جمعه پانزدهم آبان 1388  |
 Key Phrases

Defining the issues

1. As I see it, the real issue here is...

2. When I say ... I mean...

3. Now when I speak of ... I am talking about...

Asking for clarification

1. Do you mean to say that...?

2. I'm not sure what you mean by that.

3. Could you be more specific?

Clarifying ideas

1. Actually that's not what I meant. What I wanted to say was...

2. Let me put it this way...

3. What I'm trying to say is...

Paraphrasing the ideas of someone else

1. In other words, he is saying that...

2. So, what he really means is...

3. If I understood you correctly, you are saying that...

4. I think her point is that...

Encourage elaboration

1. Could you please elaborate on your ideas a little more?

2. I'd appreciate your expanding on that idea, Peter.

3. I feel you haven't covered the topic in depth.

4. That's the overview. Now let's fill in the specific details.

Encourage participation

1. Julia, we haven't heard your opinion on the issue of ...What do you think?

2. I believe we've heard from everyone except Anne.

3. We'd love to hear what you have to say, Kumiko.

4. Let's give Virginia a chance to comment on that.

5. How about it Martin? What do you think?

6. Stuart, can you help us out here?

 

Speaking for a position

Agreement

1. I back you up in that 100 percent, Doug.

2. I'm throwing my weight behind Carlos.

3. I think you have a valid point there.

4. You have got my vote Alex.

5. Frank's ideas should be given our full consideration.

6. Debbie is right on target. Let's go with her idea.

7. I have to back Howard on this one.

Offering evidence

1. The fact is that...

2. The facts show that...

Getting Agreement

1. You have to admit that...

2. You must agree that…

3. Don't you think/agree that...?

4. Clearly,...

5. You can't deny that...

6. Most authorities/experts agree that...

Speaking against a position

Contradicting

1. Not at all...

2. Quite the opposite,...

3. Actually that is not quite accurate/true...

4. I am sorry, but I am very upset by this because I feel...

5. You have got to be out of your mind to say that...

6. To a certain extent I agree with you, but...

7. I am afraid, I really do not agree with that because...

8. That's ridiculous...

9. Ok, I see your point however...

10. You're completely off-base.

11. I'm sorry, but that is not how I see it.

12. Yes, but still...

13. Maybe so, but...

14. even so,...

15. Even if that is true,...

16. You have a point, but...

17. Yes, but some maintain that...

Stopping someone

1. That's a great story, Phil, but you will have to wait until the meeting is over to tell us the rest. Sorry.

2. Vera, we appreciate your intense interest, but it's time to let others express their views on the subject.

3. I'll get back to you on that tomorrow.

Closing Tactics

1. John, time is running short, so please be as brief as possible.

2. I would appreciate your keeping it short David.

3. In conclusion?

4. I'd appreciate it if all of you could limit yourselves to...

Keeping the discussion on track

1. That's an interesting idea, but it raises a different point. Could we come back to it later?

2. That's a good idea, but let's get back to it later

3. I think that's a point worth discussing, but let's finish this issue before moving onto a different one.

4. That's a valid point, but it is getting off the subject. Right now we are talking about...

Giving up the floor

1. I believe it's Abolfazl's turn at the wheel.

2. What I have to say can wait. Be my guest.

3. Is everyone ok if I pass? Then Abolfazl can continue.

4. Abolfazl, we haven't heard what you think. So?

 

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در چهارشنبه بیست و سوم اردیبهشت 1388  |
 This Is Just to Say

THIS IS JUST TO SAY

I have eaten

the plums

that were in

the icebox

 

and which

you were probably

saving

for breakfast

 

Forgive me

They were delicious

So sweet

And so cold

 

             William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)

 

|+| نوشته شده توسط رضا مختاري در پنجشنبه دهم اردیبهشت 1388  |
 
 
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